Bitcoins ekosystem – vilka är beståndsdelarna?

Bitcoins ekosystem – vilka är beståndsdelarna?

Det är inte helt lätt det här! Men med lite input här och där så kan man kanske greppa en aning? Så nu tänkte jag grotta ner mig i ekosystemet kring bitcoin. Lägg orden: Noder, miners och SPV’s på minnet.

Kort resumé av blockkedjan

Om vi börjar med att göra en resumé av vad blockkedjan är, för att bättre förstå Bitcoins ekosystem, så består blockkedjan av en datastruktur/databas vilket skapar en kedja av block (blockkedja 😉)

Ett block innehåller ett antal transaktioner. Dessa block är kryptografiskt sammanlänkade vilket formar en blockkedja.

Noder, vad har de för funktion?

Datastrukturen är distribuerad över nätverket. Det innebär att alla noder har en kopia av hela blockkedjan och tillsammans med nätverket kommer dessa fram till ett konsensus av vad som ska läggas till i blockkedjan, alternativt inte läggas till.

I sammanhanget är det bra att komma ihåg att endast miners (gruvarbetare) kan addera block till blockkedjan. Inte noderna – de verifierar endast.

Så vad verifierar de – mer exakt? Noderna verifierar att transaktionerna som är skickade på/till blockkedjan är korrekta samt att hålla en komplett kopia av blockkedjan. Man kan helt enkelt se noderna som kontrollanter av hela nätverket.

Miners (gruvarbetarns) uppgift

Miners (gruvarbetare) övervakar nätverket för obekräftade transaktioner och sedan konstruerar de block och konkurrerar mellan varandra – proof of work om vem som kan lösa det kryptografiska pusslet.

Gruvarbetaren (miner) som löser det kryptografiska pusslet snabbast kommer att kunna addera sitt block på blockkedjan och alla transaktioner i det blocket bekräftas.

Vad händer med noderna då? När ett nytt block lagts till? Då uppdateras noderna.

SPV’s – Simple Payment Verification

Som du säkert greppat så här långt så kan inte alla gå runt och ha en total kopia av hela blockkedjan i sin mobil. Det är helt orimligt. Så hur blir det då? Och en node!! Hur många har det?

Vi vet vid det här laget att vissa enheter har extremt lite minne, vissa har inte tillräckligt stor hårddisk, osv. Noder och miners har en total kopia, men inte SPV’s. Så vad är då dessa bra för?

Om du till exempel har en mobilapp, en wallet på din mobilapp, så är det sannolikt en SPV du har.

En SPV laddar endast ner den information som den behöver i sammanhanget för att fungera. Så i det här fallet är förtroende och tillförlitlighet involverat.

Hur fungerar en SPV?

En SPV måste ansluta till en nod för att hämta den information som behövs, alltså inte hela blockkedjehistorien. I stället kommer den bara hämta den information som den behöver för att fungera – för att skicka en transaktion eller för att hålla reda på användarens balans.

Så det är väldigt viktigt att inse att man i det här systemet, där inte kapacitet eller hårdvara finns att köra en full bitcoin nod görs genom en SPV – så kan du ansluter till en nod och hämtar endast den information du behöver, om det så är att skicka en transaktion, eller kolla balansen på kontot.

Hoppas du fick lite klarhet kring ekosystemet kring bitcoin. Tre faktorer: Nodes, miners och SPV’s.
Lämna gärna en kommentar, en tumme upp, eller en tumme ner? Eller dela om du tror någon av dina vänner skulle uppskatta? 🙂

 

Foto: unsplash-logoRandall Bruder

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